Ambiguous functions are not really
functions. For each prescription of values to the arguments the
ambiguous function has a collection of possible values. An example of
an ambiguous function is *less*(*n*) defined for all positive integer
values of *n*. Every non-negative integer less than *n* is a possible
value of *less*(*n*). First we define a basic ambiguity operator *amb*(*x*,*y*)
whose possible values are *x* and *y* when both are defined: otherwise,
whichever is defined. Now we can define *less*(*n*) by

*less*(*n*) has the property that if we define

then

There are a number of important kinds of mathematical arguments whose convenient formalization may involve ambiguous functions. In order to give an example, we need two definitions.

If *f* and *g* are two ambiguous functions, we shall say that
*f* is a *descendant* of *g* if for each *x* every possible value of
*f*(*x*) is also a possible value of *g*(*x*).

Secondly, we shall say that a property of ambiguous functions
is *hereditary* if whenever it is possessed by a function *g* it is
also possessed by all descendants of *g*. The property that iteration
of an integer valued function eventually gives 0 is hereditary, and
the function *less* has this property. So, therefore, do all its
descendants. Therefore any integer-function *g* satisfying *g*(0) = 0
and has the property that is identically 0 since *g* is a
descendant of *less*. Thus any function, however complicated, which
always reduces a number will if iterated sufficiently always give 0.

This example is one of our reasons for hoping that ambiguous functions will turn out to be useful.

With just the operation *amb* defined above adjoined to those
used to generate , we can extend to the class
which may be called the *computably ambiguous
functions*. A wider class of ambiguous functions is formed using the
operator whose values are all *x*'s satisfying

Wed May 1 17:18:52 PDT 1996