# FORMALIZATION OF TWO PUZZLES INVOLVING KNOWLEDGE

**Formalization of two Puzzles Involving Knowledge** was written
between 1971 and 1987. It involves formalization of facts about
knowledge including both *knowing what* and *knowing that*,
how to assume and prove non-knowledge, joint knowledge and the effect of
learning a fact on the set of facts then known. A major proof was
done by Xiwen Ma, then visiting Stanford from Peking University.
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