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Conclusion: Between us and human-level intelligence lie many problems. They can be summarized as that of succeeding in the common sense informatic situation.

The problems include:

common sense knowledge of the world
Many important aspects of what this knowledge is in and how it can be represented are still unsolved questions. This is particularly true of knowledge of the effects of actions and other events.

epistemologically adequate languages
These are languages for expressing what a person or robot can actually learn about the world [McCarthy and Hayes, 1969].

elaboration tolerance
What a person knows can be elaborated without starting all over.

nonmonotonic reasoning
Perhaps new systems are needed.

contexts as objects
This subject is just beginning. See the references of section 7.

AI systems will need to examine their own internal states.

The present puzzles of formalizing action should admit a uniform solution.

I doubt that a human-level intelligent program will have structures corresponding to all these entities and to the others that might have been listed. A generally intelligent logical program probably needs only its monotonic and nonmonotonic reasoning mechanisms plus mechanisms for entering and leaving contexts. The rest are handled by particular functions and predicates.

John McCarthy
Sun Apr 19 15:21:34 PDT 1998