CS323: Common Sense Reasoning in Logic
Fall 1999

Welcome to the CS323 course web page! Information about the class, syllabus, homework, etc. can be found here.

Table of Contents

General Course Information

Course: CS323: Common Sense Reasoning in Logic
Instructor: Professor John McCarthy
Email: jmc@cs.stanford.edu
Office: Gates 208
Office Hours: By appointment.
TA: Aarati Parmar
Email: aarati@cs.stanford.edu
Office: Gates 218
Office Hours: Thursdays, 2:30pm to 4:30pm, Room 218. (Right after class; we might be in the lounge area outside my office).
Secretary: Maria Bharwada
Email: maria@cs.stanford.edu
Office: Gates 205
When: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 1:15pm to 2:30pm
Where: Gates 498. (New location!)
Email List: All students should be on cs323@cs.stanford.edu. To get on/off this list, email aarati@cs.stanford.edu. (People who came to the first and second meetings are already on it.)
Here is a list of the readings. This is the same information as in the
bibliography of the syllabus.

  1. Hal95 Joseph Y. Halpern. Reasoning about Knowledge. In D. Gabbay, editor, Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol.4. Oxford University Press, 1995.
  2. Lif87 Vladimir Lifschitz. Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge: an Introduction. Unpublished manuscript, the ps file has only pages 1-7 (among 12), 1987.
  3. Lif93 Vladimir Lifschitz. Circumscription. In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 3: Nonmonotonic Reasoning and Uncertain Reasoning. Oxford University Press, 1993.
  4. Lif96a Vladimir Lifschitz. First and Second-Order Logic. Unpublished manuscript, 1996.
  5. Lif96b Vladimir Lifschitz. Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge and Reasoning: an Example. Unpublished manuscript, 1996.
  6. McC59 John McCarthy. Programs with Common Sense. In Mechanisation of Thought Processes, Proceedings of the Symposium of the National Physics Laboratory, pages 77-84, London, U.K., 1959. Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Reprinted in McC90.
  7. McC79a John McCarthy. Ascribing mental qualities to machines. In Martin Ringle, editor, Philosophical Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence. Harvester Press, 1979. Reprinted in [McC90].
  8. McC79b John McCarthy. First Order Theories of Individual Concepts and Propositions. In Donald Michie, editor, Machine Intelligence, volume 9. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 1979. Reprinted in [McC90].
  9. McC80 John McCarthy. Circumscription--A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence, 13:27-39, 1980. Reprinted in [McC90].
  10. McC86 John McCarthy. Applications of Circumscription to Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge. Artificial Intelligence, 28:89-116, 1986. Reprinted in [McC90].
  11. McC90 John McCarthy. Formalizing Common Sense: Papers by John McCarthy. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 355 Chestnut Street, Norwood, NJ 07648, 1990.
  12. McC93 John McCarthy. Notes on Formalizing Context. In IJCAI-93, 1993.
  13. McC96a John McCarthy. From Here to Human-Level AI. In KR96 Proceedings, 1996. Available as http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/human.html.
  14. McC96b John McCarthy. Making Robots Conscious of their Mental States. In Stephen Muggleton, editor, Machine Intelligence 15. Oxford University Press, 1996. to appear in 1999.
  15. McC96c John McCarthy. Missionaries and Cannibals: Making it Elaboration Tolerant. In McCarthy's web page, 1996. Available as http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/cs323/missionaries.ps.
  16. McC97 John McCarthy. Elaboration Tolerance. In McCarthy's web page, 1997.
  17. MH69 John McCarthy and Patrick J. Hayes. Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence. In B. Meltzer and D. Michie, editors, Machine Intelligence 4, pages 463-502. Edinburgh University Press, 1969.
  18. Rei80 Raymond Reiter. A Logic for Default Reasoning. Artificial Intelligence, 13 (1-2):81-132, 1980.
  19. SS94 Erik Sandewall and Yoav Shoham. Nonmonotonic Temporal Reasoning. In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Volume 4: Epistemic and Temporal Reasoning. Oxford University Press, 1994.
Here are some more readings that are not in the syllabus:
  1. What is AI?. John McCarthy, 1997.
  2. Concepts of Logical AI. John McCarthy, 1996.
Here is a day by day listing of which handouts were covered when:
Extra copies are available outside of Gates 218.

Date Handout
Thurs. Sep. 23 1. Syllabus html, ps
Tues Sep. 28 2. Programs with Common Sense,
3. Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence (in class we only handed out the first 37 pages which are mainly John's contribution),
4. Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge: an Introduction (Vladimir Lifschitz's Notes).
Thurs Sep. 30 5. Philosophical and Scientific Presuppositions of Logical AI (available at: http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/phil2.html. The most recent version was handed out in class.)
Tues Oct. 5 6. Circumscription--A Form of Non-Monotonic Reasoning
7. Applications of Circumscription to Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge.
Lecture Notes for Today on Circumscription. ps, pdf
Thurs Oct. 7 8. Situation Calculus. (From John's book, in progress.) Handed out in class. Extra copies are available in front of Gates 218.
Tues Oct. 12 9. Problem Set #1. Due October 26!
Thurs Oct. 14 10. Frames for CS323. Handed out in class. Copies available from staff.
Tues Oct. 19 11. Approximate Objects. Handed out in class.
Thurs Oct. 21 12. First Order Theories of Individual Concepts and Propositions First 17 pages handed out in class.
Tues Oct. 26 More on Concepts and Propositions from Handout #12.
Thurs Oct. 28 13. Elaboration Tolerance (McCarthy)
14. Missionaries and Cannibals in the Causal Calculator(Lifschitz)
Tues Nov. 2 None.
Thurs Nov. 4 15. Problem Set #2 Due November. 18!
Handouts from Lecture on Otter, PVS, and Cyc.
Tues Nov. 9 16. Problem Set #1 Solutions
17. "What are the limitations of Situation Calculus?" Handed out in class for ps#2.
Thurs Nov. 11 18. Notes on Formalizing Context
Tues Nov. 16 None.
Thurs Nov. 18 None.
Tues Nov. 23 19. Formalization of Two Puzzles Involving Knowledge
Thurs Nov. 25 No classes -- Thanksgiving
Tues Nov. 30 20. "Blocks World with Compound Objects", Stefan Harmeling
21. "A Simple Example of Common Sense Reasoning", Aarati Parmar
Thurs Dec. 2 22. Problem Set #2 Solutions

We will play around with theorem provers like Otter, a proof verification system like PVS and a system for reasoning in causal logic like the Causal Calculator. More information to be handed out later.
Additional Readings

The readings are already listed but here are some other good things to look at.

Related Resources

If you really want to be a hard-core Logical AI person, check these links out:

Questions? Contact: aarati@cs.stanford.edu
Last modified: Fri Sep 29 14:13:38 PDT 2000